ایستیون قراور کلیولند

ویکی‌پدیا، آچیق بیلیک‌لیک‌دن
(استیون گراور کلیولند-دن يوْل‌لاندیریلمیش)
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
ایستیون قراور کلیولند
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped).jpg
22nd & 24th President of the United States
ایشله‌دیگی‌ایللر
March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1897
رئیس‌جومهورون موعاوینی آدلی استیونسون یکم
قاباقجا بنجامین هریسون
سونراکی ویلیام مک‌کینلی
ایشله‌دیگی‌ایللر
March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1889
رئیس‌جومهورون توماس ای. هندریکس (1885)
None (1885–1889)[lower-alpha ۱]
قاباقجا چستر آلن آرتور
سونراکی بنجامین هریسون
28th Governor of New York
ایشله‌دیگی‌ایللر
January 1, 1883 – January 6, 1885
Lieutenant David B. Hill
قاباقجا آلونزو بی. کورنل
سونراکی دیوید بی. هیل
34th Mayor of Buffalo
ایشله‌دیگی‌ایللر
January 2, 1882 – November 20, 1882
قاباقجا Alexander Brush
سونراکی Marcus M. Drake
17th Sheriff of Erie County, New York
ایشله‌دیگی‌ایللر
January 1, 1871 – December 31, 1873[۱]
قاباقجا Charles Darcy
سونراکی John B. Weber
شخصی بیلگی‌لر
دوغوم Stephen Grover Cleveland
۱۸ مارس ۱۸۳۷
کالدول، نیوجرسی, U.S.
اؤلوم ۲۴ ژوئن ۱۹۰۸ میلادی (۷۱ یاش)
پرینستون، نیوجرسی, U.S.
ایستراحت یئری Princeton Cemetery, New Jersey
سیاسی حیزبی آمریکا بیرلشمیش ایالتلرین دموکرات حزبی
حیات‌یولداشی Frances Folsom (ائولی ۱۸۸۶)
اوشاقلار 6, including Ruth ("Baby"), Esther, Richard
والدین‌لر Richard Falley Cleveland
Ann Neal
قوهوملار Rose Cleveland (sister)
Philippa Foot (granddaughter)
پئشه
  • Politician
  • lawyer
ایمضاسی Cursive signature in ink


استون گراور کلیولند

ایستیون قراور کلیولند اینگیلیسجه :Stephen grover clevland (دوغوم:۱۸۳۷،اؤلوم:۱۹۰۸) آمریکا بیرلشمیش ایالتلری اؤلکه‌سی‌نین ۲۲اینجی و ۲۴اونجو جومهورباشقانی .۱۸۸۴دن ۱۸۸۸و ۱۹۹۲ دوره‌لرده ایش اؤستونده اولدو.


نوتلار[دَییشدیر]

  1. Vice President Hendricks died in office. As this was prior to the adoption of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment in 1967, a vacancy in the office of Vice President was not filled until the next ensuing election and inauguration.

قایناقلار[دَییشدیر]

  1. Nelson, Julie (2003). American Presidents Year by Year. Routledge. p. 334. ISBN 9780765680464. 

آرتیق اوخو[دَییشدیر]

Scholarly studies

  • Bauer, K. Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775–1990: Major Combatants. وزتپورت، کانتیکت: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-26202-0. 
  • Bard, Mitchell. "Ideology and Depression Politics I: Grover Cleveland (1893–1897)" Presidential Studies Quarterly 1985 15(1): 77–88. ISSN 0360-4918
  • Beito, David T. and Beito, Linda Royster,"Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism, 1896–1900," Independent Review 4 (Spring 2000), 555–575.
  • Berhow, Mark A., Ed. (2015). American Seacoast Defenses, A Reference Guide, Third Edition. McLean, Virginia: CDSG Press. ISBN 978-0-9748167-3-9. 
  • (1942) «Background of Cleveland's Venezuelan Policy». The American Historical Review 47 (2): 259–277. DOI:10.2307/1841667.
  • Blodgett, Geoffrey. "Ethno-cultural Realities in Presidential Patronage: Grover Cleveland's Choices" New York History 2000 81(2): 189–210. ISSN 0146-437X when a German American leader called for fewer appointments of Irish Americans, Cleveland instead appointed more Germans
  • Blodgett, Geoffrey. "The Emergence of Grover Cleveland: a Fresh Appraisal" New York History 1992 73(2): 132–168. ISSN 0146-437X covers Cleveland to 1884
  • Blum, John. The National Experience (1993) ISBN 0-15-500366-6
  • Brodsky, Alan. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Character, (2000). ISBN 0-312-26883-1
  • Calhoun, Charles William (2005). Benjamin Harrison. Macmillan. ISBN 0-8050-6952-6. 
  • Cleaver, Nick. Grover Cleveland's New Foreign Policy: Arbitration, Neutrality, and the Dawn of American Empire (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).
  • DeSantis, Vincent P. "Grover Cleveland: Another Look." Hayes Historical Journal 1980 3(1–2): 41–50. ISSN 0364-5924, argues his energy, honesty, and devotion to duty—much more than his actual accomplishments established his claim to greatness.
  • Dewey, Davis R. National Problems: 1880–1897 (1907), online edition
  • Doenecke, Justus. "Grover Cleveland and the Enforcement of the Civil Service Act" Hayes Historical Journal 1984 4(3): 44–58. ISSN 0364-5924
  • Faulkner, Harold U. Politics, Reform, and Expansion, 1890–1900 (1959), online edition
  • Ford, Henry Jones. The Cleveland Era: A Chronicle of the New Order in Politics (1921), short overview online
  • Gould, Lewis. America in the Progressive Era, 1890–1914 (2001) ISBN 0-582-35671-7
  • Graff, Henry F. Grover Cleveland (2002). ISBN 0-8050-6923-2, short biography by scholar
  • Grossman, Mark, Political Corruption in America: An Encyclopedia of Scandals, Power, and Greed (2003) ISBN 1-57607-060-3.
  • Hoffman, Karen S. "'Going Public' in the Nineteenth Century: Grover Cleveland's Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act" Rhetoric & Public Affairs 2002 5(1): 57–77. ISSN 1094-8392
  • Hirsch, Mark D. William C. Whitney, Modern Warwick (1948), biography of key political associate
  • Hoffman, Karen S. "'Going Public' in the Nineteenth Century: Grover Cleveland's Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act" Rhetoric and Public Affairs 2002 5(1): 57–77. in Project MUSE
  • (1956) «The Depression of the Nineties». The Journal of Economic History 16 (2): 137–164. DOI:10.1017/S0022050700058629.
  • Hoffmann, Charles. Depression of the nineties; an economic history (1970)
  • Jeffers, H. Paul, An Honest President: The Life and Presidencies of Grover Cleveland (2000), ISBN 0-380-97746-X.
  • (1966) «Presbyterianism, Jacksonianism and Grover Cleveland». American Quarterly 18 (4): 615–636. DOI:10.2307/2711386.
  • Klinghard, Daniel P. "Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, and the emergence of the president as party leader." Presidential Studies Quarterly 35.4 (2005): 736–760.
  • Lambert, John R. Arthur Pue Gorman (1953)
  • Lynch, G. Patrick "U.S. Presidential Elections in the Nineteenth Century: Why Culture and the Economy Both Mattered." Polity 35#1 (2002) pp. 29–50. in JSTOR, focus on election of 1884
  • McElroy, Robert. Grover Cleveland, the Man and the Statesman: An Authorized Biography (1923) Vol. I, Vol. II, old fashioned narrative
  • McFarland, Gerald W. Mugwumps, morals, & politics, 1884–1920 (1975) ISBN 0-87023-175-8
  • McWilliams, Tennant S., "James H. Blount, the South, and Hawaiian Annexation." Pacific Historical Review 1988 57(1): 25–46. in JSTOR.
  • Merrill, Horace Samuel. Bourbon Leader: Grover Cleveland and the Democratic Party (1957) 228 pp
  • Morgan, H. Wayne. From Hayes to McKinley: National Party Politics, 1877–1896 (1969).
  • Nevins, Allan. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Courage (1932) Pulitzer Prize-winning biography, the major resource on Cleveland.
  • Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. A History of the United States since the Civil War. Volume V, 1888–1901 (Macmillan, 1937). 791 pp; comprehensive old-fashioned political history
  • Reitano, Joanne R. The Tariff Question in the Gilded Age: The Great Debate of 1888 (1994). ISBN 0-271-01035-5.
  • Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850: 1877–1896 (1919) online complete; old, factual and heavily political, by winner of Pulitzer Prize
  • Sturgis, Amy H. ed. Presidents from Hayes Through McKinley: Debating the Issues in Pro and Con Primary Documents (Greenwood, 2003).
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. Rum, Romanism & Rebellion: The Making of a President, 1884 (2000). ISBN 0-8078-4849-2. campaign techniques and issues online edition
  • Tugwell, Rexford Guy, Grover Cleveland Simon & Schuster, Inc. (1968).
  • Welch, Richard E. Jr. The Presidencies of Grover Cleveland (1988) ISBN 0-7006-0355-7, scholarly study of the presidential years
  • توماس وودرو ویلسون, Mr. Cleveland as President Atlantic Monthly (March 1897): pp. 289–301 online; Wilson later became president
  • فرید زکریا From Wealth to Power (1999) Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01035-8.

Primary sources

  • Cleveland, Grover. The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland (1892) online edition
  • Cleveland, Grover. Presidential Problems. (1904) online edition
  • Nevins, Allan ed. Letters of Grover Cleveland, 1850–1908 (1933)
  • National Democratic Committee (1896). Campaign Text-book of the National Democratic Party. National Democratic committee. , handbook of the Gold Democrats, who admired Cleveland
  • Sturgis, Amy H. ed. Presidents from Hayes through McKinley, 1877–1901: Debating the Issues in Pro and Con Primary Documents (2003) online edition
  • Wilson, William L. The Cabinet Diary of William L. Wilson, 1896–1897 (1957) online edition

ائشیک باغلانتیلار[دَییشدیر]

Official

Letters and Speeches

Media coverage

Other