آمونیاک

ویکی‌پدیا، آچیق بیلیک‌لیک‌دن
آمونیاک
Ball-and-stick model of the ammonia molecule
Space-filling model of the ammonia molecule
Stereo structural formula of the ammonia molecule
Names
IUPAC name
Azane
Other names
Hydrogen nitride

Trihydrogen nitride

Nitrogen trihydride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
3DMet B00004
3587154
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.760
EC Number 231-635-3
79
KEGG
MeSH Ammonia
RTECS number BO0875000
UNII
UN number 1005
Properties
NH3
Molar mass 17.031 g/mol
Appearance Colourless gas
Odor strong pungent odour
Density 0.86 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at boiling point)

0.769  kg/m3 (STP)[۱]
0.73 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at 15 °C)
681.9 kg/m3 at −33.3 °C (liquid)[۲] See also Ammonia (data page)
817 kg/m3 at −80 °C (transparent solid)[۳]

Melting point −۷۷٫۷۳ درجه سلسیوس (−۱۰۷٫۹۱ درجه فارنهایت; ۱۹۵٫۴۲ کلوین) (Triple point at 6.060 kPa, 195.4 K)
Boiling point −۳۳٫۳۴ درجه سلسیوس (−۲۸٫۰۱ درجه فارنهایت; ۲۳۹٫۸۱ کلوین)
47% w/w (0 °C)
31% w/w (25 °C)
18% w/w (50 °C)[۴]
Solubility soluble in chloroform, ether, ethanol, methanol
Vapor pressure 857.3 kPa
Acidity (pKa) 32.5 (−33 °C),[۵] 10.5 (DMSO)
Basicity (pKb) 4.75
-18.0·10−6 cm3/mol
1.3327
Viscosity 0.276 cP (−40 °C)
Structure
C3v
Trigonal pyramid
1.42 D
Thermochemistry
193 J·mol−1·K−1[۶]
−46 kJ·mol−1[۶]
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 0414 (anhydrous)
GHS pictograms GHS-pictogram-bottle.svgGHS-pictogram-acid.svgGHS-pictogram-skull.svgGHS-pictogram-pollu.svg[۷]
H221, H280, H314, H331, H400[۷]
P210, P261, P273, P280, P305+351+338, P310[۷]
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point flammable gas
۶۵۱ درجه سلسیوس (۱٬۲۰۴ درجه فارنهایت; ۹۲۴ کلوین)
Explosive limits 15–28%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
0.015 mL/kg (human, oral)
40,300 ppm (rat, 10 min)
28595 ppm (rat, 20 min)
20300 ppm (rat, 40 min)
11590 ppm (rat, 1 hr)
7338 ppm (rat, 1 hr)
4837 ppm (mouse, 1 hr)
9859 ppm (rabbit, 1 hr)
9859 ppm (cat, 1 hr)
2000 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
4230 ppm (mouse, 1 hr)[۸]
5000 ppm (mammal, 5 min)
5000 ppm (human, 5 min)[۸]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):[۹]
PEL (Permissible)
50 ppm (25 ppm ACGIH- TLV; 35 ppm STEL)
REL (Recommended)
TWA 25 ppm (18 mg/m3) ST 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
IDLH (Immediate danger)
300 ppm
Related compounds
Other cations
Phosphine
Arsine
Stibine
Related nitrogen hydrides
Hydrazine
Hydrazoic acid
Related compounds
Ammonium hydroxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

آمونیاک (اینگیلیس دیلی: Ammonia) فرمولو NH3 نیتروژن و هیدروژن مولکولودور.

قایناق

  1. Gases – Densities. یوْخلانیلیب3 March 2016.
  2. Yost, Don M. (2007). "Ammonia and Liquid Ammonia Solutions", Systematic Inorganic Chemistry. READ BOOKS, 132. ISBN 1-4067-7302-6.
  3. Blum, Alexander (1975). «On crystalline character of transparent solid ammonia». Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 24 (4). DOI:10.1080/00337577508240819.
  4. (1996) The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 12th, Merck. ISBN 0-911910-12-3.
  5. Perrin, D. D., Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution; 2nd Ed., Pergamon Press: Oxford, 1982.
  6. ۶٫۰ ۶٫۱ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, A22. ISBN 0-618-94690-X.
  7. ۷٫۰ ۷٫۱ ۷٫۲ Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ammonia. Retrieved on 20 July 2013.
  8. ۸٫۰ ۸٫۱ Ammonia. Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  9. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0028. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).