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Boron,  5B
Boron R105.jpg
General properties
Allotropes α-, β-rhombohedral, β-tetragonal (and more)
Appearance black-brown
Boron in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


B

Al
berylliumboroncarbon
Atomic number (Z) 5
Group, period group 13 (boron group), period 2
Block p-block
Electron configuration {{{electron configuration}}}
Electrons per shell
2, 3
Physical properties
Melting point 2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F)
Boiling point 4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F)
Density when liquid, at m.p. 2.08 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 508 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 11.087 J/(mol·K)

Vapor pressure |- ! style="text-align:right;" | 10B | style="text-align:right" | 20% | colspan="3" style="text-align:left;" | is stable[۱] |- ! style="text-align:right;" | 11B | style="text-align:right" | 80%

| colspan="3" style="text-align:left;" | is stable[۱]
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
Atomic properties
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.04
Ionization energies 1st: 800.6 kJ/mol
2nd: 2427.1 kJ/mol
3rd: 3659.7 kJ/mol
(more)
Atomic radius empirical: 90 pm
Covalent radius 84±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 192 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for boron
Speed of sound thin rod 16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion β form: 5–7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[۲]
Thermal conductivity 27.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity ~106 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −6.7·10−6 cm3/mol[۳]
Mohs hardness ~9.5
CAS Number 7440-42-8
تاریخی
Discovery

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and

Louis Jacques Thénard[۴] (30 June 1808)
First isolation Humphry Davy[۵] (9 July 1808)
Main isotopes of boron
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life Decay mode Pro­duct


10B content is 19.1–20.3% in natural samples, with the remainder being 11B.[۶]
| references | in Wikidata

بور


قایناقلار[دَییشدیر]

شابلون:قتیناق


اتک‌یازی[دَییشدیر]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements. National Institute of Standards and Technology. یوْخلانیلیب2008-09-21.
  2. (October 1973) «Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron». High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57.
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ Haynes, William M., ed. (2016). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (97th ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.127. ISBN 9781498754293. 
  4. (1808) «Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique». Annales de chimie 68: 169–174.
  5. Davy H (1809). «An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory». Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 99: 39–104. DOI:10.1098/rstl.1809.0005.
  6. Szegedi, S. (1990). «Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method». Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters 146 (3): 177. DOI:10.1007/BF02165219.