Celia Cruz in 1957
|دوْغوم آدی||Úrsula Hilaria Celia Caridad Cruz Alfonso|
|لقب||La Guarachera de Cuba|
۲۱ اوْکتوبر ۱۹۲۵|
۱۶ ژوئیه ۲۰۰۳ میلادی (۷۷ یاش)|
Fort Lee, New Jersey, US
Úrsula Hilaria Celia de la Caridad Cruz Alfonso (October 21, 1925 – July 16, 2003) was a Cuban singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three gold albums during her career. She received a star on the "Walk of Fame" in Hollywood. U.S. President Bill Clinton awarded her the National Medal of Arts in 1994. She was renowned internationally as the "Queen of Salsa", "La Guarachera de Cuba", as well as "The Queen of Latin Music." Celia Cruz spent much of her career working in the United States and several Latin American countries. Leila Cobo of Billboard magazine once said: "Cruz is indisputably the best known and most influential female figure in the history of Cuban and Latin music." She was an ambassador for the variety and vitality of the music of her native Havana, and after the Cuban revolution, she became a symbol of artistic freedom for Cuban American exiles. She died of brain cancer in 2003.
Úrsula Hilaria Celia de la Caridad Cruz Alfonso was born on October 21, 1925 in the diverse, working-class neighborhood of Santos Suárez in Havana, Cuba, the second of four children. Her father, Simón Cruz, was a railroad stoker and her mother, Catalina Alfonso was a homemaker who took care of an extended family. Celia was one of the eldest among fourteen children—brothers, sisters, and many cousins—and often had to put the younger ones to bed by singing them to sleep. .
While growing up in Cuba's diverse 1930s musical climate, Cruz listened to many musicians who influenced her adult career, including Fernando Collazo, Abelardo Barroso, Pablo Quevedo and ارسینیو رودریقیز. Despite her father's opposition and the fact that she was Catholic, as a child Cruz learned Santería songs from her neighbor who practiced Santería. Cruz also later studied the words to Yoruba songs with colleague Merceditas Valdés (an akpwon, a santería singer) from Cuba and made various recordings of this religious genre, even singing backup for other female akpwons like Candita Batista. As a teenager, her aunt took her and her cousin to cabarets to sing, but her father encouraged her to attend school in the hope she would become a teacher. After high school, she attended the Normal School for Teachers in Havana with the intent of becoming a literature teacher. At the time being a singer was not viewed as an entirely respectable career. However, one of her teachers told her that as an entertainer she could earn in one day what most Cuban teachers earned in a month. From 1947, Cruz studied music theory, voice, and piano at Havana's National Conservatory of Music. Cruz began singing at Havana's radio station Radio García-Serra as a contestant on this station's popular "Hora del Té" daily broadcast, where she sang the tango "Nostalgias" and won a cake as the first-place finisher. She often won cakes and also opportunities to participate in more contests. Her first recordings were made in 1948 in Venezuela.[نیازمند منبع]
In 1947 Celia Cruz enrolled in the Escuela Normal de Maestros (Teachers'College) in Havana; however, began to enter amateur singing contests on local radio stations. After graduating in 1949, Cruz enrolled in Havanas' National Conservatory of Music, where she took the classes until 1950. She did not graduate from the conservatory; however, she soon joined La Sonora Matancera.
Cruz's big break came in 1950 when Myrta Silva, the singer with Cuba's Sonora Matancera, became pregnant and returned to her native Puerto Rico. Since they were in need of a new singer, the band decided to give the young Celia Cruz a chance. She auditioned in June, and at the end of July she was asked to join as lead singer. She won the support of Sonora's band leader, Ro gelio Martínez, and went on to record hits such as "Yembe Laroco" and "Caramelo". Soon her name was bigger than the band's. During her 15 years with Sonora Matancera, she appeared in cameos in some Mexican films such as Rincón criollo (1950), Una gallega en La Habana (1955) and Amorcito corazón (1961), toured all over Latin America, and became a regular at Havana's famous Tropicana nightspot. After Fidel Castro assumed control of Cuba in 1959, when the Sonora Matancera left Cuba to perform in Mexico in June 1960, they did not return. Cruz and her husband, Pedro Knight, were prohibited from returning to their homeland and became citizens of the United States. In 1965, Cruz left the group and in 1966, Cruz and تیتو پوئنته began an association that would lead to eight albums for Tico Records. The albums were not as successful as expected. However, Puente and Cruz later joined the Vaya Records label. There, she joined accomplished pianist Larry Harlow and was soon headlining a concert at New York's Carnegie Hall. Cruz's 1974 album with Johnny Pacheco, Celia y Johnny, was very successful, and Cruz soon found herself in a group named the Fania All-Stars, which was an ensemble of salsa musicians from every orchestra signed by the Fania label (owner of Vaya Records). In Celia y Johnny, "Quimbará" became one of her signature songs. With the Fania All-Stars, Cruz had the opportunity to visit England, France, Zaire (today's DR Congo), and to return to tour Latin America; her performance in Zaire is included in the film Soul Power. In the late 1970s, she participated in an Eastern Air Lines commercial in Puerto Rico, singing the catchy phrase ¡Esto sí es volar! (This is to truly fly!). In 1976, she participated in a documentary film Salsa about the Latin culture, along with figures like Dolores del Río and ویلی کولون. She also made three albums with Willie Colon (1977, 1981, 1987). With a voice described as operatic, Cruz moved through high and low pitches with an ease that belied her age, and her style improvising rhymed lyrics added a distinctive flavor to salsa. Her flamboyant costume, which included various colored wigs, tight sequined dresses, and very high heels, became so famous that one of them was acquired by the Smithsonian Institution. Celia Cruz used to sing the identifying spot for WQBA radio station in Miami, formerly known as "La Cubanísima": "I am the voice of Cuba, from this land, far away...I am liberty, I am WQBA, the most Cuban! (Yo soy de Cuba, la voz, desde esta tierra lejana...soy libertad, soy WQBA, Cubanísima!) During the 1980s, Cruz began to garner the international recognition that was her due, she made many tours in Latin America and Europe, doing multiple concerts and television shows wherever she went, and singing both with younger stars and stars of her own era. She began a crossover of sorts, when she participated in the 1988 feature film Salsa alongside Robby Draco Rosa.
In 1990, Cruz won a Grammy Award for Best Tropical Latin Performance – Ray Barretto & Celia Cruz – Ritmo en el Corazón. She later recorded an anniversary album with Sonora Matancera. In the same year, she was recipient of the Excellence Award at the 1990 Lo Nuestro Awards. In 1992, she starred with Armand Assante and Antonio Banderas in the film The Mambo Kings. In 1994, President Bill Clinton awarded Cruz the National Medal of Arts. In the same year, she was inducted into Billboards Latin Music Hall of Fame along with fellow Cuban musician Cachao López. In 1999, Cruz was inducted into the International Latin Music Hall of Fame.<ref> (7 December 1998) «International Latin Music Hall of Fame». Latin American Rhythm Magazine. یوْخلانیلیب18 October 2014. @@@ !!!
سیلیا کروز (اینگیلیسجه: Celia Cruz) کوبالی موسیقیچی - چئشیتلی موسیقی ژانرلاریندا اثرلر یارادیب. سیلیا کروز ۲۱ اوْکتوبر ۱۹۲۵ تاریخینده هاوانا شهرینده حیاتا گؤز آچیب و ۱۶ ژوئیه ۲۰۰۳ میلادی تاریخینده Fort Lee, New Jersey شهرینده وفات ائدیب.
- Pareles, Jon (December 14, 1992). "Review/Pop; The Queen of Latin Music Takes It From the Top". Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- Celia Cruz's Shoes. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. یوْخلانیلیب2008-06-09.
- "Her Life". National Museum of American History. Accessed October 7, 2012.
- Cobo, Leila (July 26, 2003). "Cuban Salsa Sensation Celia Cruz Dies At 77". AllBusiness.com.
- Music: The Definitive Visual History. New York: DK Publishing. یوْخلانیلیب13 December 2016.
- Celia Cruz; Ana Cristina Reymundo (2004). Celia: mi vida. Harper Collins. pp. 24, 74. ISBN 0-06-072606-7.
- ¡Azúcar! The Life and Music of Celia Cruz. Smithsonian Institution. یوْخلانیلیب2007-11-04.
- Celia Cruz. Encyclopædia Britannica. یوْخلانیلیب13 December 2016.
- Celia Cruz; Ana Cristina Reymundo (2004). Celia: mi vida. Harper Collins. pp. 32–4. ISBN 0-06-072606-7.
- Knight, Franklin; Gates, Henry (2016). Dictionary of the Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Cartlidge, Cherese (2013). Celia Cruz (in English). Infobase. pp. 28–29. ISBN 9781438146072.
- Scott, O.A. (2009-07-10). "Music and Musicians Still Echo 35 Years Later". The New York Times.
- Lo Nuestro – Historia (Spanish). Univision. Univision Communications. آرشیولنیب اصلی نۆسخهدن on June 26, 2015. یوْخلانیلیبMarch 8, 2014.
- Lannert, John (May 21, 1994). «First Latin Music Awards Recognize Range of Talent». Billboard 106 (32). یوْخلانیلیبJune 3, 2010.
قارداش پروژهلرده سیلیا کروز گؤره داها آرتیق بیلگیلر تاپابیلرسینیز.
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