شابلون:Infobox carbon

ویکی‌پدیا، آچیق بیلیک‌لیک‌دن
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
کربون,  6C
Graphite-and-diamond-with-scale.jpg
General properties
Allotropesgraphite, diamond
Appearancegraphite: black
diamond: clear
کربون in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


C

سیلیکون
boronکربوننیتروژن
Atomic number (Z)6
Group, periodgroup 14 (carbon group), period 2
Blockp-block
Element category  reactive nonmetal, sometimes considered a metalloid
Electron configuration[هلیوم] 2s2 2p2
Electrons per shell
2, 4
Physical properties
Phasesolid
Sublimation point3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Density near r.t.amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g/cm3[۱]
graphite: 2.267 g/cm3
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
Triple point4600 K, ​10,800 kPa[۲][۳]
Heat of fusiongraphite: 117 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacitygraphite: 8.517 J/(mol·K)
diamond: 6.155 J/(mol·K)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+4, +3,[۴] +2, +1,[۵] فرمالدهید, −1, متانول, اتان, −4[۶] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.55
Ionization energies1st: 1086.5 kJ/mol
2nd: 2352.6 kJ/mol
3rd: 4620.5 kJ/mol
(more)
Covalent radiussp3: 77 pm
sp2: 73 pm
sp: 69 pm
Van der Waals radius170 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuregraphite: ​simple hexagonal
Simple hexagonal crystal structure for graphite: کربون

(black)
Crystal structurediamond: ​face-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for diamond: کربون

(clear)
Speed of sound thin roddiamond: 18,350 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansiondiamond: 0.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[۷]
Thermal conductivitygraphite: 119–165 W/(m·K)
diamond: 900–2300 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivitygraphite: 7.837 µΩ·m[۸]
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[۹]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−5.9·10−6 (graph.) cm3/mol[۱۰]
Young's modulusdiamond: 1050 GPa[۷]
Shear modulusdiamond: 478 GPa[۷]
Bulk modulusdiamond: 442 GPa[۷]
Poisson ratiodiamond: 0.1[۷]
Mohs hardnessgraphite: 1–2
diamond: 10
CAS Number7440-44-0
تاریخی
Discoveryاسکی میصر and Sumerians[۱۱] (3750 BCE)
Recognized as an element byآنتوان لاووازیه[۱۲] (1789)
Main isotopes of کربون
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life Decay mode Pro­duct
11C syn 20 min β+ 11B
12C 98.9% is stable
13C 1.1% is stable
14C trace 5730 y β 14N
| references | in Wikidata
Carbon
B ←

i'box B

→ N

i'box N

قایناقلار

  1. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  2. Haaland, D (1976). «Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon». Carbon 14 (6): 357. DOI:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5.
  3. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). «Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)». Carbon 43 (6): 1115. DOI:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027.
  4. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP.
  5. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical. یوخلانیلیب 2007-12-06.
  6. Carbon: Binary compounds. یوخلانیلیب 2007-12-06.
  7. ۷٫۰ ۷٫۱ ۷٫۲ ۷٫۳ ۷٫۴ Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  8. Material Properties- Misc Materials. یوْخلانیلیب12 November 2016.
  9. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  10. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
  11. History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky. Caer.uky.edu. یوْخلانیلیب2008-09-12.
  12. Senese, Fred (2000-09-09). Who discovered carbon?. Frostburg State University. یوْخلانیلیب2007-11-24.
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