کورمانجی‌‌لر

ویکی‌پدیا، آچیق بیلیک‌لیک‌دن
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
Comanches
Nʉmʉnʉʉ
Flag of the Comanche Nation.svg
Flag of the Comanche[۱]
چوْخلی اهالی اولان بؤلگه‌لر
آمریکا بیرلشمیش ایالتلری (اوکلاهوما ایالتی, تکزاس ایالتی, نیومکزیکو ایالتی)
دیل‌لری

اینگیلیس دیلی, Comanche The Comanche /kəˈmæn/ (شابلون:Lang-com) are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present-day eastern نیومکزیکو ایالتی, southeastern کولورادو ایالتی, southwestern کانزاس ایالتی, western اوکلاهوما ایالتی, and most of northwest تکزاس ایالتی and northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in لتن، اوکلاهوما.[۱] After European contact, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers with a horse culture. As many as 45,000 Comanches may have been alive in the late 18th century.[۲] They were the dominant tribe on the Southern Plains and often took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, selling them as slaves to the Spanish and later Mexican settlers. They also took thousands of captives from the Spanish, Mexican, and American settlers.[۳] Today, the Comanche Nation has 15,191 members, around 7,763 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around the Lawton, Fort Sill, and surrounding areas of southwest Oklahoma.[۴] The Comanche Homecoming Annual Dance is held annually in والترز، اوکلاهوما, in mid-July.[۵] The Comanche language is a نومی دیللری language of the یوتو آزتک دیللری family, sometimes classified as a Shoshoni dialect.[۶] Only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today.[۶][۷] The name "Comanche" is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi (enemy).[۸]

Government

The Comanche Nation is headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Comanche, Cotton, Grady, Jefferson, Kiowa, Stephens, and Tillman Counties. Membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum (equivalent to one great-grandparent).[۱]

Economic development

The tribe operates its own housing authority and issues tribal vehicle tags. They have their own Department of Higher Education, primarily awarding scholarships and financial aid for members' college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton. They own 10 tribal smoke shops and four casinos.[۱] The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton; Comanche Red River Casino in Devol; Comanche Spur Casino, in الجین، اوکلاهوما; and Comanche Star Casino in والترز، اوکلاهوما.[۹]

Cultural institutions

In 2002, the tribe founded the Comanche Nation College, a two-year tribal college in Lawton.[۱۰] It has since closed. Each July, Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters at the annual Comanche Homecoming powwow. The Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Year's and one in May.[۱۱]

History

Formation

1718 Guillaume de L'Isle map showing the range and villages of Padoucas, believed to be the Comanche, at the heads of the Missouri, Kansas, and Arkansas Rivers.[۱۲]
The location of Rio Fierro is in the top center.[۱۳]

The Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people[۱۴] living along the upper پلت چایی in وایومینگ ایالتی. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt.[۱۵] They separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds.

Nicolas de La Fora's 1771 map of the northern frontier of یئنی ایسپانیا shows the Comanche territory in the upper left of the map above the Red River.[۱۶]
Comancheria, the former territory of the Comanche including large portions of Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Kansas

The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture. It was of such strategic importance that some scholars suggested that the Comanche broke away from the Shoshone and moved southward to search for additional sources of horses among the settlers of یئنی ایسپانیا to the south (rather than search for new herds of buffalo.) The Comanche may have been the first group of Plains natives to fully incorporate the horse into their culture and to have introduced the animal to the other Plains peoples.[۱۷] From نکیتاش، لوئیزیانا in Spanish Louisiana, Athanase de Mézières reported in 1770 that the Comanches were "so skilful in horsemanship that they have no equal, so daring that they never ask for or grant truces, and in possession of such a territory that... they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, and have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians."[۱۸] Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the آرکانزاس چایی to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people ever southward, defeating them in a nine-day battle along the Rio del Fierro (Wichita River) in 1723.[۱۹][۲۰] The river may be the location mentioned by Athanase de Mézières in 1772, containing "a mass of metal which the Indians say is hard, thick, heavy, and composed of iron", which they "venerate...as an extraordinary manifestation of nature", the Comanche's calling it Ta-pic-ta-carre [standing rock], Po-i-wisht-carre [standing metal], or Po-a-cat-le-pi-le-carre [medicine rock], the general area containing a "large number of meteoric masses".[۲۱][۲۲] By 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the ریو قرانده چایی and the مسکلیروو، نیومکزیکو Apache to Coahuila.[۲۳] During that time, their population increased dramatically because of the abundance of buffalo, an influx of Shoshone migrants, and their adoption of significant numbers of women and children taken captive from rival groups. The Comanche never formed a single cohesive tribal unit, but were divided into almost a dozen autonomous groups, called bands. These groups shared the same language and culture, and rarely fought each other.[۲۴] They were estimated to have taken captive thousands of people from the Spanish, Mexican, and American settlers in their lands. Curtis Marez suggests that this contributed to the development of mestizaje in the borderlands, as the descendants of such captives were mixed-race.[۲۵] By the mid-19th century, the Comanche were supplying horses to French and American traders and settlers, and later to migrants passing through their territory on the way to the California Gold Rush, along the California Road.[نیازمند منبع] The Comanche had stolen many of the horses from other tribes and settlers; they earned their reputation as formidable horse thieves, later extending their rustling to cattle.[نیازمند منبع] Their stealing of livestock from Spanish and American settlers, as well as the other Plains tribes, often led to war.[نیازمند منبع] The Comanche also had access to vast numbers of feral horses, which numbered about 2,000,000 in and around Comancheria, and which the tribe was particularly skilled at breaking to saddle. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the Comanche lifestyle required about one horse per person (though warriors each possessed many more). With a population around 30,000 to 40,000 and in possession of herds many times that number, the Comanche had a surplus of about 90,000 to 120,000 horses.[۲۶]

They were formidable opponents who developed strategies for using traditional weapons for fighting on horseback. Warfare was a major part of Comanche life. Comanche raids into Mexico traditionally took place during the full moon, when the Comanche could see to ride at night. This led to the term "Comanche Moon", during which the Comanche raided for horses, captives, and weapons.[۲۷] The majority of Comanche raids into Mexico were in the state of Chihuahua and neighboring northern states.[۲۸]

Divisions

Four levels of social-political integration were found in Comanche society:[۲۹]

  • Patrilineal and patrilocal nuclear family[۳۰]
  • Extended family group (nʉmʉnahkahni – "the people who live together in a household", no size limits, but kinship recognition was limited to relatives two generations above or three below)[۳۰]
  • Residential local group (rancheria, comprised one or more nʉmʉnahkahni, one of which formed its core)[۳۰]
  • Division or band (sometimes called tribe, Spanish nación, rama – "branch", several local groups linked by kinship, sodalities (political, medicine, and military) and common interest in hunting, gathering, war, peace, trade)[۳۰]

As an example of such political and kinship-based division, the Yaparʉhka, identified as a separate division. Because of cultural and linguistic differences from other Comanche bands, they became the "(Yap)Root-Eaters", in contrast to the Kʉhtsʉtʉhka ("Buffalo-Eaters"). The Yaparʉhka division was composed of several residential local groups, such as the Ketahtoh Tʉ, Motso Tʉ, and Pibianigwai.[۳۱] In contrast to the neighboring Cheyenne and Arapaho to the north, the Comanche never developed a political idea of forming a nation or tribe. The Comanche recognized each other as Nʉmʉnʉ and bands seldom fought against each other; but the Kwaarʉ Nʉʉ pursued policies against the Spanish and Indian settlements in New Mexico independently of the Kʉhtsʉtʉhka. As a consequence, at the time when Comanche society was breaking down, the once respected and feared Penatʉka Nʉʉ provided U.S. Army Indian Scouts for the Americans and Texans against their still fighting and free-roaming Comanche kin.[۳۱] The band was the primary social unit of the Comanche. A typical band might number about 100 people. Bands were part of larger divisions, or tribes. Before the 1750s, the three Comanche divisions were: Yamparikas, Jupes, and Kotsotekas. In the 1750s and 1760s, a number of Kotsoteka bands split off and moved to the southeast. This resulted in a large division between the original group, the western Comanches, and the break-away Kotsotekas, the eastern Comanches. The western Comanche lived in the region of the upper آرکانزاس چایی, کانادا چایی, and رد استوور چایی Rivers, and the Llano Estacado. The eastern Comanches lived on the Edwards Plateau and the Texas plains of the upper Brazos and Colorado Rivers, and east to the Cross Timbers.[۳۲]

War on the plains: Comanche (right) trying to lance an Osage warrior. Painting by George Catlin, 1834

Over time, these divisions were altered in various ways. In the early 19th century, the Jupes vanished from history, probably merging into the other divisions. Many Yamparikas moved southeast, joining the eastern Comanche and becoming known as the Tenewa. Many Kiowa and Plains Apache (or Naishan) moved to northern Comancheria and became closely associated with the Yamparika. A group of Arapaho, known as the Charitica, moved into Comancheria and joined Comanche society. New divisions arose, such as the Nokonis, closely linked with the Tenewa; and the Kwahadi, who emerged as a new faction on the southern Llano Estacado. The western-eastern distinction changed in the 19th century. Observers began to call them Northern, Middle, and Southern Comanche. One of the largest groups, as well as the southernmost, lived on the edge of the Edwards Plateau and east across to the Cross Timbers, and became known as the Penateka, (Penatʉka Nʉʉ)[۳۲] Southern Comanches.[۳۳] In the eastern part of the Comancheria, between the Colorado and Red Rivers, roamed the Nokoni (Nokoni Nʉʉ — ‘Movers’, ‘Returners’).[۳۴] South of them were the strong, associated smaller bands or residential groups of the Tenawa (Tahnahwah or Tenahwit — ‘Those Who Live Downstream’) and Tanima (Tanimʉʉ, Dahaʉi, or Tevawish — ‘Liver-Eaters’). Together, the Nokoni, Tenawa, and Tanima were called the Middle Comanche. Just north of the Nokonis in the Red River Valley, between the Red and Canadian Rivers, lived the numerous residential local groups of the powerful Kotsotekas (Kʉhtsʉtʉʉka — ‘Buffalo-Eaters’); they took their name from the large buffalo herds that were always in their territory. The northernmost Comanche band was the Yamparikas (Yaparʉhka or Yapai Nʉʉ — ‘(Yap)Root-Eaters’). As the last band to move onto the Plains, they retained much of their Shoshone tradition. Because the Kotsoteka and Yamparika lived in the northern part of the Comancheria, they were called the Northern Comanche. The last large group was known as Kwahadis (Quohada or Kwaarʉ Nʉʉ/Kwahare — ‘Antelope-Eaters’), originally Kotsoteka-residential local groups that moved south out of the سیمارون چایی onto the desert plains of the Llano Estacado. They emerged as a new division in the 19th century. Though the western-eastern distinction had changed in the 19th century, these people were classified as Western Comanche because of their relative isolation on the westernmost edge of the Comancheria.

All these division names were spelled in many different ways by Spanish and English writers, and spelling differences continue today. Large-scale groupings became unstable and unclear during the 19th century. The Comanche society was slowly overwhelmed and ultimately subjugated to the United States.[۳۲]
دین‌لری
Native American Church, مسیحیت, traditional tribal religion

کورمانجی‌‌لر (اینگیلیسی‌جه: Comanche، عرب‌جه: كومانشي (قبيلة)، آنادولو تورکجه‌سی: Komançiler، فارسجا: کومانچی) - بیر قومی گروه چوْخ‌لاری آمریکا بیرلشمیش ایالتلری, اوکلاهوما ایالتی, تکزاس ایالتی, نیومکزیکو ایالتی دا یاشاییرلار. چوْخ‌لاری آمریکا بیرلشمیش ایالتلری, اوکلاهوما ایالتی, تکزاس ایالتی, نیومکزیکو ایالتی دا یاشاییرلار.

گؤرونتولر[دَییشدیر]

قایناقلار[دَییشدیر]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ ۱٫۲ ۱٫۳ 2011 Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory (PDF) (November 2011). آرشیولنیب اصلی نۆسخه‌دن on May 12, 2012. یوْخلانیلیبJanuary 2, 2012.
  2. McLynn, Frank. "Review of Pekka Hämäläinen, The Comanche Empire". Literary Review. Archived from the original on 2008-08-20. 
  3. Marez, Curtis (June 2001). Signifying Spain, Becoming Comanche, Making Mexicans: Indian Captivity and the History of Chicana/o Popular Performance. American Quarterly 267–307. DOI:10.1353/aq.2001.0018.
  4. The Official Site of the Comanche Nation ~ Lawton, Oklahoma. یوْخلانیلیب2012-06-18.
  5. The Homecoming Dance.
  6. ۶٫۰ ۶٫۱ Comanche – American Indians. آرشیولنیب اصلی نۆسخه‌دن on 2013-10-29.
  7. Comanche Indians.
  8. Bright, William, ed. (2004). Native American Placenames of the United States (University of Oklahoma Press).  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. "Oklahoma Indian Casinos." 500 Nations. Retrieved 2 Jan 2011.
  10. Comanche Nation College. 2009 (16 February 2009)
  11. Comanche Nation Tourism Center. Archived 2008-11-04 at the Wayback Machine. Comanche Nation. (16 February 2009)
  12. Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi by Guillaume de L'Isle (1718), US Library of Congress
  13. Urrutia, Lafora and Ruby, 1769, Map of Frontier, US Library of Congress
  14. Meredith 30
  15. Comanche Timeline. Comanchelanguage.org. آرشیولنیب اصلی نۆسخه‌دن on 2012-07-19. یوْخلانیلیب2012-06-18.
  16. Bolton, H.E., 1915, Texas in the Middle 18th Century, Berkeley: University of California Press, facing p. 382
  17. Hamalainen 23, 37–38, 170
  18. Herbert Eugene Bolton, Athanase de Mézières and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768-1780, volume 1, p. 218-219. The Arthur H Clark Company, Cleveland, 1914.
  19. Dunn, W. E., 1911," Apache Relations in Texas, 1718-1750," in Texas Historical Association Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 3, p. 220
  20. Herbert Eugene Bolton, Athanase de Mézières and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768-1780, volume 1, p. 24-25. The Arthur H Clark Company, Cleveland, 1914.
  21. Herbert Eugene Bolton, Athanase de Mézières and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768-1780, volume 1, p. 296. The Arthur H Clark Company, Cleveland, 1914.
  22. Farrington, O.C., 1909, Meteorites of North America, to January 1, 1909, National Academy of Sciences Volume XIII, pp. 486-490
  23. Herbert Eugene Bolton, Athanase de Mézières and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768-1780, volume 1, p. 25. The Arthur H Clark Company, Cleveland, 1914.
  24. Gaines, Richard (2000). Comanche. Checkerboard Books. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-57765-372-1. 
  25. Marez, Curtis (June 2001). «Signifying Spain, Becoming Comanche, Making Mexicans: Indian Captivity and the History of Chicana/o Popular Performance» 53 (2): 267–307. DOI:10.1353/aq.2001.0018.
  26. Hamalainen 240
  27. Wallace and Hoebel
  28. Kavanagh (1996)
  29. Kavanagh 41–53
  30. ۳۰٫۰ ۳۰٫۱ ۳۰٫۲ ۳۰٫۳ Meadows (2003) p.331
  31. ۳۱٫۰ ۳۱٫۱ Meadows (2003) p.295
  32. ۳۲٫۰ ۳۲٫۱ ۳۲٫۲ Hämäläinen 105, 151, 242, 282–283, 306, 314
  33. Penateka Comanches ~ Marker Number: 16257. Texas Historical Commission (2009).
  34. after the death of chief Peta Nocona with the same name as the band, they called themselves Tʉtsʉ Noyʉkanʉʉ or Detsanayʉka — ‘Bad Campers’, ‘Poor Wanderer’ or ‘Wanderers Who Never Set Up Good Camps’