چین-ژاپون ساواشی (۱۹۳۷—۱۹۴۵)

ویکی‌پدیادان، آچیق بیلیک‌لیک‌دن
Second Sino-Japanese War
the ایکینجی دۆنیا ساواش‌سینده ساکیت اوقیانوس جبهه‌سی of ایکینجی دونیا ساواشی[a] نین بیر پارچاسی
Second Sino-Japanese War collection.png
Clockwise from top left: The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) Special Naval Landing Forces troops in gas masks prepare for an شانقهای دؤیوشو, 1944 ایچی-قو عملیاتی IJA Type 92 Heavy machine gun, dead victims of the نانجینق قتل‌عامی on the shore of the قینهوای چایی with a Japanese soldier standing nearby, Chinese machine gun nest in the ووهان دؤیوشو, Japanese Bombing of Chongqing, the Chinese Expeditionary Force in India in 1942
تاریخ July 7, 1937 – September 2, 1945
Minor fighting since September 18, 1931
(۸ ایل، ۱ آی، ۳ هفته و ۵ گون)
یئر Mainland China and Burma
نتیجه

دییشیکلیکلر
China recovered all territories lost to ژاپون ایمپیراتورلوغو since the Treaty of Shimonoseki, but lost Outer Mongolia.
طرفلر
باشچیلار
گۆجلر
تلفات
  • Chinese Nationalists:
    • Official ROC data:
      • 1,320,000 killed
      • 1,797,000 wounded
      • 120,000 missing
      • Total: 3,237,000[۱۲][۱۳]
    • Other estimates:
      • 1,319,000–4,000,000+ military dead and missing
      • 500,000 captured[۱۴][۱۵]
  • Total: 3,211,000–10,000,000+ military casualties[۱۵][۱۶]
  • Chinese Communists:
    • Official PRC data:
      • 160,603 military dead
      • 290,467 wounded
      • 87,208 missing
      • 45,989 POWs
      • Total: 584,267 military casualties[۱۷]
    • Other estimates:
  • Total:
  • Japanese:
    • Japanese medical data:
    • ROC estimate:
      • 1.77 million dead
      • 1.9 million wounded
      • Total: 3,670,000[۲۱]
    • 2007 PRC studies:
      • 1,055,000 dead
      • 1,172,200 wounded
      • Total: 2,227,200[۲۲]
  • Puppet states and collaborators:
    • 288,140–574,560 dead
    • 742,000 wounded
    • Middle estimate: 960,000 dead and wounded[۲۳][۲۴]
  • Total:
  • c. 3,000,000 – 5,000,000 military casualties after July 1937 (excluding Manchuria and برمه کمپینی)[d]
Chinese civilian deaths:
17,000,000–22,000,000[۱۳]
  1. ^ From 1941 onward
  2. ^ This number does not include Japanese killed by Chinese forces in the Burma campaign and does not include Japanese killed in Manchuria.
  3. ^ Excluding more than 1 million who were disarmed following the surrender of Japan
  4. ^ Including casualties of Japanese puppet forces. The combined toll is most likely around 3,500,000: 2.5 million Japanese, per their own records, and 1,000,000 collaborators.

شابلون:WWIITheatre

چین-ژاپون ساواشی' — ۱۹۳۷–۱۹۴۵-جی ایللر آراسی چین و ژاپون آراسیندا باش وئرمیش موناقیشه.

گؤرونتولر[دَییشدیر]

  1. ^ The Chinese Nationalist Army, ww2-weapons.com Retrieved 11 March 2016
  2. ^ Hsiung, China's Bitter Victory, p. 171
  3. ^ David Murray Horner (July 24, 2003). The Second World War: The Pacific. Taylor & Francis. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-415-96845-4. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
  4. ^ Hsiung (1992). China's Bitter Victory (in انگلیسی). Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 978-1563242465. {{cite book}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  5. ^ 中国人民解放军历史资料丛书编审委员会 (1994). 八路军·表册 (in چینی). 解放军出版社. pp. 第3页. ISBN 978-7-5065-2290-8. {{cite book}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  6. ^ 丁星,《新四军初期的四个支队——新四军组织沿革简介(2)》【J】,铁军,2007年第2期,38–40页
  7. ^ Hsiung, James C. (1992). China's Bitter Victory: The War With Japan, 1937–1945. New York: M.E. Sharpe publishing. ISBN 1-56324-246-X.
  8. ^ Black, Jeremy (2012). Avoiding Armageddon: From the Great Wall to the Fall of France, 1918–40. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-4411-2387-9.
  9. ^ RKKA General Staff, 1939. Retrieved 17 April 2016
  10. ^ Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1964 Retrieved 11 March 2016
  11. ^ Jowett, p. 72.
  12. ^ Hsu Long-hsuen "History of the Sino-Japanese war (1937–1945)" Taipei 1972
  13. ^ ۱۳٫۰ ۱۳٫۱ Clodfelter, Michael "Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference", Vol. 2, pp. 956. Includes civilians who died due to famine and other environmental disasters caused by the war. Only includes the 'regular' Chinese army; does NOT include guerrillas and does not include Chinese casualties in Manchuria or Burma.
  14. ^ ۱۴٫۰ ۱۴٫۱ ۱۴٫۲ "Rummel, Table 6A". hawaii.edu.
  15. ^ ۱۵٫۰ ۱۵٫۱ ۱۵٫۲ ۱۵٫۳ R. J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century. Transaction 1991 ISBN 0-88738-417-X.
  16. ^ ۱۶٫۰ ۱۶٫۱ Rummel, Table 5A. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  17. ^ Meng Guoxiang & Zhang Qinyuan, 1995. "关于抗日战争中我国军民伤亡数字问题".
  18. ^ Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery Retrieved 10 March 2016
  19. ^ 戦争: 中国侵略(War: Invasion of China) (in Japanese). 読売新聞社. p. 186. Retrieved 15 January 2017.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  20. ^ He Yingqin, "Eight Year Sino-Japanese War"
  21. ^ Hsu, p. 565.
  22. ^ Liu Feng, (2007). "血祭太阳旗: 百万侵华日军亡命实录". Central Compilation and Translation Press. ISBN 978-7-80109-030-0. Note: This Chinese publication analyses statistics provided by Japanese publications.
  23. ^ R. J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century. Transaction 1991 ISBN 0-88738-417-X. Table 5A
  24. ^ [۱] Retrieved 28 September 2015.