کربون

ویکی‌پدیا، آچیق بیلیک‌لیک‌دن
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
کربون,  6C
Graphite-and-diamond-with-scale.jpg
General properties
Allotropes graphite, diamond
Appearance graphite: black
diamond: clear
کربون in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


C

سیلیکون
boronکربوننیتروژن
Atomic number (Z) 6
Group, period group 14 (carbon group), period 2
Block p-block
Element category   reactive nonmetal, sometimes considered a metalloid
Electron configuration [هلیوم] 2s2 2p2
Electrons per shell
2, 4
Physical properties
Phase solid
Sublimation point 3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Density near r.t. amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g/cm3[۱]
graphite: 2.267 g/cm3
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
Triple point 4600 K, ​10,800 kPa[۲][۳]
Heat of fusion graphite: 117 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity graphite: 8.517 J/(mol·K)
diamond: 6.155 J/(mol·K)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +4, +3,[۴] +2, +1,[۵] فرمالدهید, −1, متانول, اتان, −4[۶] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.55
Ionization energies 1st: 1086.5 kJ/mol
2nd: 2352.6 kJ/mol
3rd: 4620.5 kJ/mol
(more)
Covalent radius sp3: 77 pm
sp2: 73 pm
sp: 69 pm
Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure graphite: ​simple hexagonal
Simple hexagonal crystal structure for graphite: کربون

(black)
Crystal structure diamond: ​face-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for diamond: کربون

(clear)
Speed of sound thin rod diamond: 18,350 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion diamond: 0.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[۷]
Thermal conductivity graphite: 119–165 W/(m·K)
diamond: 900–2300 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity graphite: 7.837 µΩ·m[۸]
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۹]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −5.9·10−6 (graph.) cm3/mol[۱۰]
Young's modulus diamond: 1050 GPa[۷]
Shear modulus diamond: 478 GPa[۷]
Bulk modulus diamond: 442 GPa[۷]
Poisson ratio diamond: 0.1[۷]
Mohs hardness graphite: 1–2
diamond: 10
CAS Number 7440-44-0
تاریخی
Discovery اسکی میصر and Sumerians[۱۱] (3750 BCE)
Recognized as an element by آنتوان لاووازیه[۱۲] (1789)
Main isotopes of کربون
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life Decay mode Pro­duct
11C syn 20 min β+ 11B
12C 98.9% is stable
13C 1.1% is stable
14C trace 5730 y β 14N
| references | in Wikidata

کربون بیر نوع شیمیایی عونصوردور.

قایناقلار

  1. (2005) in Lide, D. R.: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 86th, Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  2. Haaland, D (1976). «Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon». Carbon 14 (6): 357. DOI:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5.
  3. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). «Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)». Carbon 43 (6): 1115. DOI:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027.
  4. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP.
  5. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical. یوخلانیلیب 2007-12-06.
  6. Carbon: Binary compounds. یوخلانیلیب 2007-12-06.
  7. ۷٫۰ ۷٫۱ ۷٫۲ ۷٫۳ ۷٫۴ Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  8. Material Properties- Misc Materials. یوْخلانیلیب12 November 2016.
  9. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  10. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing, E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
  11. History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky. Caer.uky.edu. یوْخلانیلیب2008-09-12.
  12. Senese, Fred (2000-09-09). Who discovered carbon?. Frostburg State University. یوْخلانیلیب2007-11-24.